Purpose, Scope, Basis, Definitions
Article 1- (1) The purpose of this Regulation is to set out the ethical rules to be followed in scientific research/ design/production, publication, and activities carried out at Izmir University of Economics, and to set out the duties, authorities and responsibilities in addition to general rules, procedures and principles regarding the Scientific Research and Publication Ethics Committees of Izmir University of Economics.
Article 2 - (1) This Regulation covers;
a) research ethics subjects regarding all kinds of scientific research and studies, scientific activities, research and development projects supported and/or carried out by the members of Izmir University of Economics, or person(s) regardless of their affiliation with Izmir University of Economics, during and after the period of obtaining academic titles in pursuant to the provisions of the legislation in effect.
b) Thesis and scientific publications carried out during undergraduate and graduate education, and research ethics subjects regarding scientific research and development projects carried out,
c) Publication ethics issues regarding any kind of publication published or sent out by the members of Izmir University of Economics to be published in all kinds of domestic or international media, and visual and audial media organs,
ç) ethical violations against experimental subjects to be used in researches and ethical violations in studies on ecology that will be conducted by the members of Izmir University of Economics.
Article 3- (1) This Regulation has been established in accordance with Article 24, 42, and 65 of Higher Education Law No. 2547, and Regulation on Scientific Research and Publication Ethics in Higher Education Institutions which went into effect with General Assembly Resolution numbered 2016.23.497.
Article 4- (1) The references in this Regulation are as follows:
a) Vice-Chair: Vice-Chair of Scientific Research and Publication Ethics Committee of Izmir University of Economics
b) Chair: Chair of Scientific Research and Publication Ethics Committee of Izmir University of Economics
c) IUE: Izmir University of Economics
ç) Committee: Scientific Research and Publication Ethics Committee
d) Institution: Izmir University of Economics
e) Rector: The Rector of Izmir University of Economics
f) Senate: The Senate of Izmir University of Economics;
g) Member: Members of Scientific Research and Publication Ethics Committee of Izmir University of Economics
Violation of Scientific Research and Publication Ethics
Article 5 – (1) Actions involving violation of scientific research and publication ethics are as follows:
a) Plagiarism: Plagiarism can be defined as, but not limited to, stealing and passing off thoughts, ideas, methods, data, expressions, or words of another as one’s own without crediting the source. Below are the academic irregularities considered as plagiarism:
(1) The Poor Disguise: Retaining the essential content of the source by altering the paper’s appearance slightly by changing key words and phrases in order to disguise plagiarism,
(2) Self-plagiarism: Re-using work from a previous assignment exactly instead of developing originality,
(3) The Misinforming: Providing inaccurate information regarding the sources, making it impossible to find the original sources,
b) Fabrication: Using data that does not exist or using falsified data in scientific researches,
c) Falsification: Making deliberate or intentional alterations on research data and records; making a false claim of using research materials and/or tools that have not been involved in the research, falsifying or altering the findings of research for the benefit of the third parties,
ç) Duplication: Publishing (or submitting for publication) the same article in academic assignments and promotions,
d) Salami Slicing: Publishing the findings of the research in least publishable units within multiple articles without damaging the unity and the integrity of the research, and submitting these articles in academic assignments and promotions,
e) Ghost Authorship: Adding names of the person/s who do not have any active contributions to the research and/or publication into the list of authors or omitting the names of the co-researchers or authors who have significantly contributed to the research and/or article, changing the order of the authors without any reasons or in an appropriate way, omitting the names of the person/s who have active contributions from the later publications, adding the names of person/s who have not contributed to the research significantly or actively into the list of authors by exerting their influence,
(2) Other types of ethical violation are as follows:
a) Failing to acknowledge the names and support of person/s, organizations or institutions in presentations or publications that include the research results which are conducted through supports,
b) Using thesis or studies as a source which are not submitted yet, or defended but not accepted, without the permission of the owner,
c) Failing to follow code of ethics in research involving human participants, failing to show respect to human rights in publications,
ç) Violating the provisions of the respective legislation on human biomedical research and in other clinical research
d) Sharing the information in a work he/she was assigned to review, without the consent of the owner before the work is published,
e) Misusing sources, locations, and tools provided or allocated for scientific research,
f) Being engaged in groundless, unjustifiable, and intentional ethical violation,
g) Publishing the results, of a survey or questionnaire conducted within a scientific research, without the consent of participants, or the consent of an institution if the research takes place in an institution,
h) Harming the ecological balance while conducting research and experiments,
ı) Failing to get written permission from authorized person(s) before conducting research and experiments,
i) Violating the provisions on conducting research and experiments of the respective national legislation or internationals legislation in which Turkey is a party to,
j) Failing to inform and warn those concerned about potentially harmful applications announced by researchers or authorities regarding scientific researches,
k) Failing to use the data and findings obtained from other person(s) or institutions in scientific researches to an extent or format permitted, or disregard the confidentiality and protection of those information,
l) Making a false statement regarding scientific researches and publications in academic assignments and promotions,
m) Failing to behave according to the rights regulated by respective legal provisions in science, arts, research, and researches
Cases That are not Considered Ethical Violation
Article 6 - (1) Use of anonymous information, basic information of disciplines, propositions such as mathematical theories and mathematical proofs, given that the unique style and statement of another person is not copied exactly, and use of texts, visuals and videos such as “Creative Commons” in studies, which are permitted to be used for non-commercial purposes, are not considered ethical violation.
The Formation, Duties and Working Principles of IUE Scientific Research and Publication Ethics Committees
The Formation of the Committees
Article 7 – (1) IUE Scientific Research and Publication Ethics Committees are formed in the fields of social and human sciences, health sciences, and physical and engineering sciences. The Committees consist of seven professors from the respective fields whom are assigned by the Rector. The period of service for the Committee members is 2 years.
(2) When necessary, different scientific research and publication ethics committees may be formed for different fields in order to provide work efficiency.
(3) The selected committee members cannot have a final judicial or administrative decision against them regarding ethical violation.
(4) Assignment of an ethics committee member, who has been involved in ethical violation, is terminated by the Rector with a written notice.
(5) Members, whose period of service expires, can be re-appointed through the same method. Memberships, of those members failing to attend three consecutive meetings without submitting any valid excuse, or being on leave for minimum of six months, are directly terminated. For memberships which become vacant for any reason, a new member is appointed through the same method.
(6) The Rector elects the Chair of the Scientific Research and Publication Ethics Committees. Each Chair elects a vice chair among the members. Assignment of the vice chair is terminated when the assignment of the chair ends.
(7) The Rector’s Office provides the personnel, tools and equipment required to carry out the secretarial services of the Ethics Committees.
Duties of the Committees
Article 8 - (1) Responsibilities and authorities of the Committees are as follows:
a) Evaluating and finalizing the applications that need the approval of the Ethics Committee.
b) Processing applications of alleged ethical misconduct, if necessary, within the Rector’s Office knowledge, consulting experts or consultants, corresponding with the relevant person(s) and authorities, and inquiring and doing what is necessary, and informing the Rector about the decisions taken,
c) Submitting proposals to the Rector's Office regarding the organization of the educational activities in collaboration with the relevant units, institutions or organizations in eliminating unethical conduct especially to do with academic, research and publication ethics.
ç) Setting out the principles regarding education, scientific research/ design/production, publication ethics of the University, and submitting proposals to change those when necessary in order to develop them.
Meeting Procedure and Principles of the Committees
Article 9 – (1) The Ethics Committees convenes with an agenda four times regularly per academic year upon the Chair’s call. The minimum number of members required for the convening is the absolute majority of the members, and for decision making of the Committees is the two third of the members. In case of a tied vote, the Chair shall have the casting vote. Apart from regular meetings, the Chair may call an emergency meeting without an agenda. The Vice Chair chairs the meetings in the absence of the Chair.
(2) Committee meetings are confidential. Committee members are obligated to keep quiet about the topics discussed and reviewed at the meetings.
(3) Committees get involved in the operations personally. But, they can seek the opinions of experts when necessary.
(4) The following people cannot be consulted as experts in investigations regarding alleged ethical misconduct:
a) graduate thesis advisors and faculty members who participated in professorships jury of the concerned person,
b) faculty members working at the same university of the concerned person,
c) spouse and up to 3rd degree blood relatives (including third degree) or relatives by marriage of the concerned person,
ç) people that have bad blood between the concerned person.
(5) In the event of a faculty member not being available in the field where the person concerned works at, a faculty member from the closest field will be assigned as an expert. Also, an attorney may be assigned as the expert regarding the legal meaning and scope of the alleged ethical misconduct. In the event of assigning more than one expert, each expert submits a separate report.
(6) The experts prepare a report about the investigation within one month the latest upon receiving the sample submitted to them. This period may be extended for maximum of one month for one time only.
(7) Members of the Committee cannot attend meetings where allegations regarding alleged ethical misconduct are being discussed with whom they worked before.
8) The Ethics Committee is obligated to carry out duties assigned to them by this Regulation rapidly, objectively and fairly. The Committee carries out its duty by building up this trust and belief.
9) Members of the Committee base their actions on the following matters in terms of processing applications.
a) While performing their duties assigned with this directive, the Committee members cannot use their authority to hinder, delay or impede a research/design project/production.
b) Members of the Committee cannot take sides in scientific competition and rivalry among the units, they cannot use their authority to give priority to the Committee members and themselves.
Method of Application to the Ethics Committees and Working Principles of the Committees
Article 10 – (1) Applications made to IUE related with ethical violations and to get the approval of Ethics Committee, are reviewed by IUE Scientific Research and Publication Ethics Committees.
(2) All information and documents regarding alleged ethical misconduct are forwarded to the Committees via electronic method.
(3) IUE creates a file for each application. The application folder should include the letter of application, name-last name, home or work address, and signature of the applicant. The information and documents regarding the allegations about behaviors that conflict with ethical values need to be clearly stated and attached to the letter. In the event of failure to confirm the identity and place of residence, or work address of the applicant, the applications will not be taken into account. The Committee does not accept applications that are being reviewed by judicial bodies or adjudicated disputes.
(4) If it is stated in the complaint and warning letters sent to IUE or found out that the person(s) associate professorship process still continues, IUE promptly asks the Interuniversity Council if the person accused by alleged ethical misconduct has an ongoing associate professorship process. If, the Interuniversity Council confirms that the person has an ongoing associate professorship process indeed, all information and documents regarding alleged ethical misconduct are forwarded to the Interuniversity Council.
(5) The person, who is under investigation due to alleged ethical violation, is required to submit a written defense in addition to information and documents regarding alleged ethical misconduct. Upon receiving the notification about written defense from the Committee, the subject/s of the investigation should respond within fifteen days. Otherwise, a decision will be taken about him/her based on other information or evidence. If the person, who is under investigation, requests a copy of the alleged ethical violation documents, in order to submit their written defense, the respective Committee can request a written defense directly, omitting an oral defense. However, the subject/s of the investigation should still submit documents regarding alleged ethical misconduct within fifteen days; otherwise, a decision will be taken about him/her based on other information or evidence. If deemed necessary, oral defense will be taken as well.
(6) After a report has been prepared, a voting process takes place following a discussion session in the Ethics Committee. The final report is signed by the members. Member(s) not agreeing with the decision should state reason/s for their objection.
(7) The Ethics Committee submits their final decisions to the Rector's Office to be approved or modified.
(8) Members of the Committee cannot announce the information and documents regarding the investigation held with experts.
(9) During the investigation process, the Ethics Committee corresponds with other institutions or organizations via the Rector's Office.
(10) The following steps are taken into account in order to get an approval for scientific studies from the Ethics Committee:
a) All studies (scientific research, project, thesis, publication, etc.) that will be conducted within Izmir University of Economics on social sciences, natural and applied sciences, or multidisciplinary fields that include these are considered scientific studies.
(1) If any of these studies involve human participants and/or experiment, research and field study on humans, approval of the ethics committee is required. All studies on adults or children, studies that examine human tissues and fluids, and non-invasive studies on healthy or sick volunteers will be evaluated within this scope.
(2) Applications on clinical experiments, invasive studies and study on animals cannot be made to these Ethics Committees as required by the legislation.
b) Application Folder: Approval application for all scientific studies mentioned above is made electronically by the respective research manager.
(1) Research manager is a faculty member who is directly responsible for: suggesting the scientific study, preparing and conducting the study, overseeing the ethical, scientific, technical, administrative, financial, and legal aspects of the study, collecting data and research outcomes regularly, controlling the outcomes attained by researchers in the research group, and keeping the data/outcomes for at least 5 years.
(2) The application folder should include a letter of application stating the name of the study, the nature of the study, researchers, and its date, attached with an Ethics Committee Approval Application Form that is filled out completely which includes details on methodology and ethics.
c) Principles of Assessment: In order for the research project to be reviewed by the ethics committee, the respective letter of application and application form needs to be filled out completely and submitted for the approval of the committee. Missing applications will not be taken into account and the research manager will be notified via the ethics committee secretariat.
(1) The assessment will be conducted directly by the Ethics Committee or by a subcommittee of three people formed by its members or external people. If a subcommittee is formed, the report of this committee will be evaluated and finalized by the Ethics Committee.
(2) The research manager is notified in writing whether the application is accepted or declined, and if declined, explained in details with a rationale.
(3) All decisions taken in the Ethics Committee are recorded in the minute book. In the event of an unfavorable decision, the rationale is also recorded in the minute book. İf there was a decision about the study to be corrected and reapplied, the demanded corrections and suggestions are also recorded in the minute book.
(4) Monitoring and Archiving: If an unexpected ethical objection occurs during research, the Ethics Committee needs to be notified about this.
(5) The approved work schedule of the committee, copies of assignment letters of the members, resumes of ethics committee members, invitations for ethics committee meetings, copies of all materials submitted by the applicants, correspondences between the Ethics Committee and the respective parties, copies of decisions submitted along with the application folder are kept in the unit archives for 5 years, and in the institution archives for 14 years.
(6) Despite the positive or negative view of the Ethics Committee, the legal liability for scientific researches/design studies/productions etc., belongs to the maker. The decisions of the Ethics Committee are advisory. They never have legal obligation. Criminal or legal liabilities may not be imposed to the Ethics Committee for its decisions
Miscellaneous and Final Provisions
Article 11 - (1) Necessary disciplinary actions and other administrative, legal, and punitive procedures about person(s) who have committed ethical violations will be carried out by IUE.
(2) IUE also reserves the right to make a decision about whether to revoke the academic title of the person who has obtained this title with the work that is the subject of the alleged ethical misconduct.
(3) The fact that the person(s) or organizations, who is the aggrieved party, giving consent or agreeing to the ethical violation, does not free the alleged of the responsibility of ethical violation.
(4) The institution of a co-worker of a respective publication is also informed by IUE when an ethical violation is committed.
(5) Decisions regarding ethical violations are communicated with the Council of Higher Education within one month the latest.
Article 11 - (1) Decisions taken by the Committees, apart from the general regulations, are confidential. No other person(s) apart from person(s) and organizations and the applicant is informed about the decisions of the Committees.
Article 12 – (1) A re-investigation with the same allegations for works which were investigated before and decided about shall not be carried out. In that case, the respective Ethics Committees need to ascertain that the works and the allegations against those works are exactly the same.
Article 13 - (1) All decisions taken as a result of an investigation carried out in accordance with this regulation shall be kept confidential and archived electronically.
(2) IUE assesses complaint and warning letters regarding ethical violation for people other than the ones who applied to associate professorship exam, and makes a decision.
Article 14- This Regulation takes effect on the date it is approved by the Senate
Article 15- The Rector of the Izmir University of Economics enforces the provisions of this Regulation.
This regulation takes effect upon the decision Senate dated 22.03.2017 and numbered 307 A/5, Board of Trustees dated 04.04.2017 and numbered 29.